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Constitution of the Russian Federation (as amended on 21 July 2014)

PREAMBLE

 

We, the multinational people of the Russian Federation,

united by a common destiny on our land,

asserting human rights and freedoms, civil peace and accord,

preserving the historic unity of the state,

proceeding from the universally recognized principles of equality and self-determination of peoples,

honouring the memory of our ancestors who have passed on to us the love of and respect for our homeland and faith in good and justice,

reviving the sovereign statehood of Russia and asserting its immutable democratic foundations,

striving to secure the well-being and prosperity of Russia,

proceeding from a sense of responsibility for our homeland before the present and future generations,

being aware of ourselves as part of the world community,

 

hereby adopt the Constitution of the Russian Federation.

 

 

SECTION ONE

 

Chapter 1. Foundations of the Constitutional System

 

Article 1

1. The Russian Federation – Russia is a democratic federal rule-of-law state with the republican form of government.

2. The names "Russian Federation" and "Russia" are equivalent.

 

Article 2

The human being, its rights and freedoms are the supreme value. It is the duty of the state to recognize, respect and protect human and civil rights and freedoms.

 

Article 3

1. The multinational people of the Russian Federation are the vehicle of sovereignty and the only source of power in the Russian Federation.

2. The people of the Russian Federation exercise their power directly, and also through public authorities and local self-government bodies.

3. The referendum and free elections are the supreme direct manifestation of the power of the people.

4. No one may misappropriate power in the Russian Federation. Seizure of power or misappropriation of authority is prosecuted under federal law.

 

Article 4

1. The sovereignty of the Russian Federation extends over its entire territory.

2. The Constitution of the Russian Federation and federal laws have supremacy throughout the entire territory of the Russian Federation.

3. The Russian Federation ensures the integrity and inviolability of its territory.

 

Article 5

1. The Russian Federation consists of republics, territories, regions, federal cities, an autonomous region and autonomous circuits, which are equal constituent entities of the Russian Federation.

2. Republics (states) have their own constitutions and legislation. Territories, regions, federal cities, autonomous regions and autonomous circuits have their own charters and legislation.

3. The federal structure of the Russian Federation is based on its state integrity, the uniform system of state power, delimitation of scopes of jurisdiction and powers between the public authorities of the Russian Federation and the public authorities of the constituent entities of the Russian Federation, equality and self-determination of peoples in the Russian Federation.

4. All the constituent entities of the Russian Federation are equal among themselves in relations with the federal public authorities.

 

Article 6

1. Citizenship of the Russian Federation is acquired and terminated in accordance with federal law and is uniform and equal irrespective of the grounds on which it has been acquired.

2. Every citizen of the Russian Federation has all the rights and freedoms on its territory and bears equal duties, stipulated in the Constitution of the Russian Federation.

3. A citizen of the Russian Federation may not be deprived of citizenship or of the right to change it.

 

Article 7

1. The Russian Federation is a social state, whose policies are aimed at creating conditions which ensure dignified life and free development of the human being.

2. In the Russian Federation the work and health of the people are protected, a guaranteed minimum wage is established, state support is provided for family, motherhood, fatherhood and childhood, for the disabled and elderly citizens, a system of social services is developed, state pensions, benefits and other social security guarantees are established.

 

Article 8

1. Unity of economic space, free movement of goods, services and financial assets, support of competition and freedom of economic activities are guaranteed in the Russian Federation.

2. Private, state, municipal and other forms of property are equally recognized and protected in the Russian Federation.

 

Article 9

1. Land and other natural resources are used and protected in the Russian Federation as the basis of life and activities of the peoples living on the corresponding territory.

2. Land and other natural resources may be in private, state, municipal and other forms of property.

 

Article 10

State power in the Russian Federation is exercised on the basis of its separation into the legislative, executive and judiciary branches. The bodies of legislative, executive and judiciary power are independent.

 

Article 11

1. State power in the Russian Federation is exercised by the President of the Russian Federation, the Federal Assembly (Federation Council and State Duma), the Government of the Russian Federation, the courts of the Russian Federation.

2. State power in constituent entities of the Russian Federation is exercised by the public authorities formed by them.

3. The scopes of jurisdiction and powers of public authorities of the Russian Federation and the public authorities of the constituent entities of the Russian Federation are delimitated in accordance with this Constitution, the Federal and other treaties on delimitation of scopes of jurisdiction and powers.

 

Article 12

Local self-government is recognized and guaranteed in the Russian Federation. Local self-government operates independently within the framework of its powers. Local self-government bodies are not part of the system of public authorities.

 

Article 13

1. Ideological plurality is recognized in the Russian Federation.

2. No ideology may be established as the state or obligatory ideology.

3. Political plurality and the multi-party system are recognized in the Russian Federation.

4. Public associations are equal before the law.

5. The establishment and activities of public associations, whose aims and actions are directed at forcible alteration of the foundations of the constitutional system and violation of the integrity of the Russian Federation, the undermining of security of the state, formation of armed units, incitement of social, racial, national and religious strife are prohibited.

 

Article 14

1. The Russian Federation is a secular state. No religion may be instituted as the state or obligatory religion.

2. Religious associations are separated from the state and are equal before the law.

 

Article 15

1. The Constitution of the Russian Federation has supreme legal force and direct effect, and is applicable throughout the entire territory of the Russian Federation. Laws and other legal acts adopted in the Russian Federation may not contradict the Constitution of the Russian Federation.

2. Public authorities and local self-government bodies, officials, citizens and their associations must comply with the Constitution of the Russian Federation and the laws.

3. The laws are subject to official publication. Unpublished laws are not applicable. No normative legal act affecting human and civil rights, freedoms or obligations may apply, unless it has been officially published for the information of the general public.

4. The universally recognized principles and norms of international law and the international treaties of the Russian Federation are a component part of its legal system. If an international treaty of the Russian Federation stipulates other rules than those stipulated by law, the rules of the international treaty apply.

 

Article 16

1. The provisions of this Chapter of the Constitution are the foundations of the constitutional system of the Russian Federation and may not be changed except as in the manner stipulated in this Constitution.

2. No other provisions of this Constitution may contravene the foundations of the constitutional system of the Russian Federation.

 

 

Chapter 2. Human and Civil Rights and Freedoms

 

Article 17

1. Human and civil rights and freedoms are recognized and guaranteed in the Russian Federation in accordance with the universally recognized principles and norms of international law and in conformity with this Constitution.

2. The basic human rights and freedoms are inalienable and belong to everyone from birth.

3. The exercise of human and civil rights and freedoms must not violate the rights and freedoms of other persons.

 

Article 18

Human and civil rights and freedoms have direct effect. They determine the meaning, content and application of the laws, the activities of the legislative and executive powers and of the local self-government, and are secured by the judiciary.

 

Article 19

1. All are equal before the law the court.

2. The state guarantees the equality of human and civil rights and freedoms regardless of sex, race, nationality, language, origin, property or employment status, place of residence, attitude to religion, convictions, membership in public associations or of any other circumstances. Any forms of restriction of the rights of citizens, based on social, racial, national, linguistic or religious grounds, are prohibited.

3. Men and women have equal rights and freedoms and equal opportunities to exercise them.

 

Article 20

1. Everyone has the right to life.

2. Capital punishment may, until its abolition, be instituted by federal law as an exceptional type of punishment for especially grave crimes against life, on condition that the accused has the right to trial with participation of jurors.

 

Article 21

1. The dignity of the person is protected by the state. Nothing may serve as grounds for its impairment.

2. No one may be subjected to torture, violence or any other cruel or humiliating treatment or punishment. No one may be subjected to medical, scientific or other experiments without one’s free consent.

 

Article 22

1. Everyone has the right to freedom and personal inviolability.

2. Arrest, placement and keeping in custody are only allowed by virtue of a court decision. No person may be detained for more than 48 hours prior to a court decision.

 

Article 23

1. Everyone has the right to inviolability of private life, to personal and family privacy, to protection of one's honour and good reputation.

2. Everyone has the right to privacy of correspondence, telephone communications, mail, cables and of other communications. Any restriction of this right is only allowed by virtue of a court decision.

 

Article 24

1. It is not allowed to gather, store, use and disseminate information regarding the private life of any person without that person’s consent.

2. Public authorities, local self-government bodies and their officials are obliged to provide every person with access to any documents and materials directly affecting that person’s rights and freedoms, unless otherwise stipulated in law.

 

Article 25

The home is inviolable. No one has the right to enter a home against the will of persons residing in it, except where stipulated by federal law or by virtue of a court decision.

 

Article 26

1. Everyone has the right to determine and state one’s national identity. No one may be forced to determine and state one’s national identity.

2. Everyone has the right to use one’s native language, to freely choose the language of communication, upbringing, training and creative work.

 

Article 27

1. Everyone who is lawfully staying on the territory of the Russian Federation has the right to freedom of movement, the right to choose the place of one’s stay and residence.

2. Everyone is free to leave the Russian Federation. Citizens of the Russian Federation have the right to freely return to the Russian Federation.

 

Article 28

Everyone is guaranteed the right to freedom of conscience, freedom of religious worship, including the right to profess, individually or jointly with others, any religion or to profess no religion; to freely choose, have and disseminate religious or other beliefs and to act in accordance with them.

 

Article 29

1. Everyone is guaranteed the right to freedom of thought and speech.

2. Propaganda or campaigning that incites social, racial, national or religious hatred and strife is not allowed. The propaganda of social, racial, national, religious or language superiority is prohibited.

3. No one may be coerced to express one's views and convictions or to renounce them.

4. Everyone has the right to freely seek, receive, transfer, produce and disseminate information by any lawful means. The register of information constituting the state secret is established by federal law.

5. Freedom of the mass media is guaranteed. Censorship is prohibited.

 

Article 30

1. Everyone has the right to association, including the right to create professional unions in order to protect one's interests. The freedom of activities of public associations is guaranteed.

2. No one may be coerced to join any association or to be a member thereof.

 

Article 31

Citizens of the Russian Federation have the right to gather peacefully, without weapons, and to hold meetings, rallies, demonstrations, marching and picketing.

 

Article 32

1. Citizens of the Russian Federation have the right to participate in the administration of state affairs both directly and through their representatives.

2. Citizens of the Russian Federation have the right to elect and to be elected to public authorities and to local self-government bodies, as well as to take part in a referendum.

3. Citizens found legally incapable by courts and citizens placed into confinement institutions by virtue of court decisions do not have the right to elect or to be elected.

4. Citizens of the Russian Federation have equal access to state service.

5. Citizens of the Russian Federation have the right to participate in the administration of justice.

 

Article 33

Citizens of the Russian Federation have the right to personally apply to state bodies and local self-government bodies, as well as to direct individual and collective addresses thereto.

 

Article 34

1. Everyone has the right to freely use one’s abilities and property for entrepreneurship or any other economic activity, not prohibited by law.

2. Economic activity aimed at monopolisation or unfair competition is not allowed.

 

Article 35

1. The right of private property is protected by law.

2. Everyone has the right to have property, to possess, use and dispose of it individually as well as with other persons.

3. No one may be deprived of one’s property, except by virtue of a court decision. Property may be forcibly alienated for state needs only on condition of prior and equal compensation.

4. The right of inheritance is guaranteed.

 

Article 36

1. Citizens and their associations have the right to have land in their private property.

2. The possession, use and disposal of land and other natural resources are freely exercised by their owners, provided that this does not cause damage to the environment or violate the rights and interests of other persons.

3. The terms and procedures for the use of land are established on the basis of federal laws.

 

Article 37

1. There shall be freedom of labour. Everyone has the right to freely dispose of one’s ability to work, to choose the type of activities and occupation.

2. Forced labour is prohibited.

3. Everyone has the right to labour in conditions meeting the requirements of safety and hygiene, to remuneration for labour without any discrimination and above the minimum wage stipulated in federal law, as well as the right to protection from unemployment.

4. The right to individual and collective labour disputes with the use of means of their resolution, stipulated in federal law, including the right to strike, is recognized.

5. Everyone has the right to rest and leisure. A person working in accordance with a labour contract is guaranteed the duration of work time, days off and holidays, as well as paid annual vacation stipulated in federal law.

 

Article 38

1. Motherhood and childhood, the family are under state protection.

2. Care for children and their upbringing is the equal right and duty of the parents.

3. Employable children, who have reached the age of 18, must care for their non-employable parents.

 

Article 39

1. Everyone is guaranteed social welfare support in old age, in case of illness, disability, loss of breadwinner, for upbringing of children and in other cases stipulated in law.

2. State pensions and social benefits are established by law.

3. Voluntary social insurance, creation of additional forms of social welfare support and charity are encouraged.

 

Article 40

1. Everyone has the right to housing. No one may be arbitrarily deprived of housing.

2. Public authorities and local self-government bodies encourage housing construction and create conditions for the realisation of the right to housing.

3. Housing is provided to low-income citizens and other citizens referred to in law, who are in need of it, free of charge or for an affordable price, from government, municipal and other housing funds in accordance with the norms stipulated in law.

 

Article 41

1. Everyone has the right to healthcare and medical assistance. Medical assistance is provided to citizens in state and municipal healthcare institutions free of charge, at the expense of the corresponding budget, insurance contributions and other revenues.

2. In the Russian Federation, federal healthcare and health promotion programs are financed, measures to develop the state, municipal and private healthcare systems are taken, activities contributing to health promotion, development of physical culture and sports, to environmental, sanitary and epidemiologic well-being are encouraged.

3. Concealment of facts and circumstances posing hazard to human life and health by officials entails liability in accordance with federal law.

 

Article 42

Everyone has the right to a favourable environment, reliable information about its condition and to compensation for the damage caused to one’s health or property by environmental offences.

 

Article 43

1. Everyone has the right to education.

2. The accessibility and charge-free nature of pre-school, basic general and secondary vocational education in state and municipal education institutions and at enterprises are guaranteed.

3. Everyone has the right to receive higher education, free of charge and on a competitive basis, in a state or municipal education institution or an enterprise.

4. Basic general education is obligatory. Parents or persons substituting for them ensure basic general education of their children.

5. The Russian Federation establishes federal state education standards and supports various forms of education and self-education.

 

Article 44

1. Everyone is guaranteed the freedom of literary, artistic, scientific, technical and other types of creative activity and teaching. Intellectual property is protected by law.

2. Everyone has the right to participate in cultural life, to use the institutions of culture, to access cultural values.

3. Everyone is obliged to care for the preservation of historic and cultural heritage, to safeguard the historical and cultural monuments.

 

Article 45

1. State protection of human and civil rights and freedoms in the Russian Federation is guaranteed.

2. Everyone has the right to defend one’s rights and freedoms by all means not prohibited by law.

 

Article 46

1. Everyone is guaranteed court protection of one’s rights and freedoms.

2. The decisions and actions (failure to act) of public authorities, local self-government bodies, public associations and officials may be appealed against in court.

3. Everyone has the right to apply to interstate bodies concerned with the protection of human rights and freedoms in accordance with the international treaties of the Russian Federation, if all the legal remedies available within the state have been exhausted.

 

Article 47

1. No one may be deprived of the right to have one’s case considered by the court and by the judge, into whose court jurisdiction that case is referred by law.

2. A person accused of a crime has the right to have his or her case considered by a court with participation of jurors, where so stipulated in federal law.

 

Article 48

1. Everyone is guaranteed the right to receive qualified legal assistance. Where stipulated in law, legal assistance is provided free of charge.

2. Any person detained, taken into custody or accused of a crime has the right to use the assistance of an advocate (defence lawyer) from the moment of, accordingly, detention, taking into custody or accusation.

 

Article 49

1. Anyone accused of a crime is considered not guilty until that person’s guilt is proven in the manner stipulated in federal law and established by an effective court sentence.

2. The accused is not obliged to prove his or her innocence.

3. Insurmountable doubts regarding the guilt of a person are interpreted in favour of the accused.

 

Article 50

1. No one may be repeatedly convicted for one and the same offense.

2. The use of evidence obtained in violation of federal law is not allowed in the administration of justice.

3. Every person sentenced for a crime has the right to review of the sentence by a higher court in the manner stipulated in federal law, and also the right to plead for pardon or mitigation of punishment.

 

Article 51

1. No one is obliged to testify against oneself, one’s spouse and close relatives, the list of which is established in federal law.

2. Federal law may stipulate other exemptions from the obligation to testify.

 

Article 52

The rights of persons harmed by crimes and abuse of power are protected by law. The state guarantees the victims access to justice and compensation for damages.

 

Article 53

Everyone has the right to compensation by the state for the damage caused by unlawful actions (failure to act) of public authorities or their officials.

 

Article 54

1. A law instituting or aggravating liability has no retroactive force.

2. No one may be held liable for an act that was not recognized as an offense at the time of its commission. If liability for an offense is eliminated or mitigated after its commission, the new law applies.

 

Article 55

1. The listing of the basic rights and freedoms in the Constitution of the Russian Federation shall not be interpreted as denial or impairment of other universally recognized human and civil rights and freedoms.

2. No laws denying or impairing human and civil rights and freedoms must be issued in the Russian Federation.

3. Human and civil rights and freedoms may be restricted by federal law only to the extent necessary for the protection of foundations of the constitutional system, morality, health, rights and lawful interests of other persons, for ensuring the defence of the country and the security of the state.

 

Article 56

1. In a state of emergency, certain restrictions of rights and freedoms, with indication of their extent and duration, may be introduced in accordance with a federal constitutional law in order to ensure the safety of citizens and protection of the constitutional system.

2. A state of emergency on the whole territory of the Russian Federation and in its certain areas may be introduced in the circumstances and in the manner stipulated in a federal constitutional law.

3. The rights and freedoms stipulated in Articles 20, 21, 23 (Part 1), 24, 28, 34 (Part 1), 40 (Part 1), 46-54 of the Constitution of the Russian Federation are not subject to restriction.

 

Article 57

Everyone is obliged to pay lawfully stipulated taxes and fees. Laws introducing new taxes or worsening the position of tax payers do not have retroactive force.

 

Article 58

Everyone is obliged to preserve the nature and the environment, to treat the natural wealth with due care.

 

Article 59

1. Defence of the homeland is a duty and obligation of a citizen of the Russian Federation.

2. Citizens of the Russian Federation engage in military service in accordance with federal law.

3. If engagement in military service contradicts the convictions or faith of a citizen of the Russian Federation, as well as in other cases stipulated in federal law, such a citizen has the right to substitute military service with alternative civil service.

 

Article 60

A citizen of the Russian Federation may independently and fully realise his or her rights and duties upon reaching the age of 18.

 

Article 61

1. A citizen of the Russian Federation may not be deported out of the Russian Federation or extradited to another state.

2. The Russian Federation guarantees its citizens protection and patronage abroad.

 

Article 62

1. A citizen of the Russian Federation may have citizenship of a foreign state (dual citizenship) in accordance with federal law or an international treaty of the Russian Federation.

2. The possession of citizenship of a foreign state by a citizen of the Russian Federation does not impair that citizen’s rights and freedoms or exempt that citizen from the obligations resulting from Russian citizenship, unless otherwise stipulated in federal law or an international treaty of the Russian Federation.

3. In the Russian Federation, foreign citizens and stateless persons enjoy the rights and bear the duties on an equal basis with the citizens of the Russian Federation, unless otherwise stipulated in federal law or an international treaty of the Russian Federation.

 

Article 63

1. The Russian Federation grants political asylum to foreign citizens and stateless persons in accordance with the universally recognized norms of international law.

2. The extradition of persons, persecuted for their political convictions, as well as for any actions (failure to act) that are not recognised as crimes in the Russian Federation, to other states is not allowed in the Russian Federation. The extradition of persons accused of crimes and also the readmission of convicted persons for serving of punishment in another country are performed on the basis of federal law or an international treaty of the Russian Federation.

 

Article 64

The provisions of this Chapter are the foundations of a person’s legal status in the Russian Federation. They may only be changed in the manner stipulated in this Constitution.

 

 

Chapter 3. Federal Structure

 

Article 65

1. The Russian Federation is composed of the following constituent entities: Republic of Adygea (Adygea), Republic of Altai, Republic of Bashkortostan, Republic of Buryatia, Republic of Dagestan, Republic of Ingushetia, Kabardino-Balkarian Republic, Republic of Kalmykia, Karachayevo-Cherkessian Republic, Republic of Karelia, Republic of Komi, Republic of Crimea, Republic of Mari El, Republic of Mordovia, Republic of Sakha (Yakutia), Republic of North Ossetia-Alania, Republic of Tatarstan (Tatarstan), Republic of Tyva, Udmurtian Republic, Republic of Khakasia, Chechen Republic, Chuvashi Republic - Chuvashia;

Altai Territory, Transbaikal Territory, Kamchatka Territory, Krasnodar Territory, Krasnoyarsk Territory, Perm Territory, Primorye Territory, Stavropol Territory, Khabarovsk Territory;

Amur Region, Arkhangelsk Region, Astrakhan Region, Belgorod Region, Bryansk Region, Vladimir Region, Volgograd Region, Vologda Region, Voronezh Region, Ivanovo Region, Irkutsk Region, Kaliningrad Region, Kaluga Region, Kemerovo Region, Kirov Region, Kostroma Region, Kurgan Region, Kursk Region, Leningrad Region, Lipetsk Region, Magadan Region, Moscow Region, Murmansk Region, Nizhny Novgorod Region, Novgorod Region, Novosibirsk Region, Omsk Region, Orenburg Region, Oryol Region, Penza Region, Pskov Region, Rostov Region, Ryazan Region, Samara Region, Saratov Region, Sakhalin Region, Sverdlovsk Region, Smolensk Region, Tambov Region, Tver Region, Tomsk Region, Tula Region, Tyumen Region, Ulyanovsk Region, Chelyabinsk Region, Yaroslavl Region;

Moscow, Saint-Petersburg, Sevastopol – federal cities;

Jewish Autonomous Region;

Nenets Autonomous Circuit,  Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Circuit - Yugra, Chukotka Autonomous Circuit, Yamal-Nenets Autonomous Circuit.

2. Accession to the Russian Federation and establishment of a new constituent entity within its composition is performed in the manner stipulated in a federal constitutional law.

 

Article 66

1. The status of a republic is determined by the Constitution of the Russian Federation and the constitution of that republic.

2. The status of a territory, region, federal city, autonomous region, autonomous circuit is determined by the Constitution of the Russian Federation and the charter of the corresponding territory, region, federal city, autonomous region, autonomous circuit, adopted by the legislative (representative) body of that constituent entity of the Russian Federation.

3. A federal law on an autonomous region, autonomous circuit may be adopted upon presentation of the legislative and executive bodies of the autonomous region, autonomous circuit.

4. The relations of autonomous circuits within the composition of a territory or region may be regulated by a federal law and a treaty between the public authorities of the autonomous circuit and, accordingly, the public authorities of that territory or region.

5. The status of a constituent entity of the Russian Federation may be changed based on mutual consent of the Russian Federation and of the constituent entity of the Russian Federation in accordance with a federal constitutional law.

 

Article 67

1. The territory of the Russian Federation includes the territories of its constituent entities, the internal waters and territorial seas, the airspace over them.

2. The Russian Federation has sovereign rights and exercises jurisdiction on the continental shelf and in the exclusive economic zone of the Russian Federation in the manner established in federal law and the norms of international law.

3. The boundaries between the constituent entities of the Russian Federation may be changed upon their mutual agreement.

 

Article 68

1. The state language of the Russian Federation throughout its territory is the Russian language.

2. Republics have the right to stipulate their own state languages. They are used alongside the state language of the Russian Federation in public authorities, local self-government bodies and state institutions of the republics.

3. The Russian Federation guarantees all its peoples the right to preserve their native language, the creation of conditions for its study and development.

 

Article 69

The Russian Federation guarantees the rights of small indigenous peoples in accordance with the universally recognised principles and norms of international law and international treaties of the Russian Federation.

 

Article 70

1. The State Flag, Coat of Arms, and the anthem of the Russian Federation, their description and manner of their official use are established by a federal constitutional law.

2. The capital of the Russian Federation is the city of Moscow. The status of the capital is established in a federal law.

 

Article 71

The following are within the jurisdiction of the Russian Federation:

a) adoption and amendment of the Constitution of the Russian Federation and federal laws, supervision over compliance with them;

b) federal structure and territory of the Russian Federation;

c) regulation and protection of human and civil rights and freedoms; citizenship of the Russian Federation; regulation and protection of the rights of national minorities;

d) establishment of the system of federal bodies of legislative, executive and judiciary power, of the manner of their organisation and activities; formation of federal public authorities;

e) federal state property and management thereof;

f) establishment of the basic principles of federal policy and federal programs in the sphere of state, economic, environmental, social, cultural and national development of the Russian Federation;

g) establishment of the legal framework for a single market; financial, currency, credit and customs regulation, monetary emission, establishment of the price policy framework; federal economic services, including federal banks;

h) federal budget; federal taxes and fees; federal funds of regional development;

i) federal power grids, nuclear energy, fissionable materials; federal transport, communication routes, information and communications; activities in space;

j) foreign policy and international relations of the Russian Federation, international treaties of the Russian Federation, issues of war and peace;

k) foreign economic relations of the Russian Federation;

l) defence and security; defence production; establishment of the manner of sale and purchase of arms, ammunition, military hardware and other military equipment; production of poisonous substances, narcotics and the manner of their use;

m) determination of status and protection of the state border, of territorial seas, airspace, the exclusive economic zone and of the continental shelf of the Russian Federation;

n) the court system; the bodies of prosecution; criminal legislation and legislation on correction; amnesty and pardon; civil legislation; legislation on judicial procedure; legal regulation of intellectual property;

o) federal rules on the conflict of laws;

p) meteorological service; standards, models, master samples, the metric system and time measurement; geodesy and cartography; names of geographical objects; official statistics and accounting;

q) state awards and honorary titles of the Russian Federation;

r) federal state service.

 

Article 72

1. The following are within the joint jurisdiction of the Russian Federation and of the constituent entities of the Russian Federation:

a) ensuring the conformity of constitutions and laws of republics, of charters, laws, and other normative legal acts of territories, regions, federal cities, an autonomous region and autonomous circuits with the Constitution of the Russian Federation and federal laws;

b) protection of human and civil rights and freedoms; protection of rights of ethnic minorities; ensuring of lawfulness, law and order, public safety; border zone regime;

c) issues of possession, use and disposal of land, mineral wealth, water and other natural resources;

d) delimitation of state property;

e) natural resource management, environmental protection and ecological safety; specially protected natural reserves; protection of historical and cultural monuments;

f) general issues of upbringing, education, science, culture, physical culture and sports;

g) coordination of healthcare issues, protection of family, motherhood, fatherhood and childhood; social protection, including social welfare;

h) measures aimed at combating catastrophes, natural disasters, epidemics and at eliminating their consequences;

i) establishment of the general principles of taxation in the Russian Federation;

j) administrative legislation, legislation on administrative procedure, labour, family, housing, land, water and forestry legislation, legislation on mineral resources and environmental protection;

k) issues of human resources for the judicial and law enforcement bodies; the bar, the notaries;

l) protection of the original environment and traditional way of life of small ethnic communities;

m) establishment of general organisation principles of the system of public authorities and local self-government bodies;

n) coordination of international and foreign economic relations of constituent entities of the Russian Federation, performance of international treaties of the Russian Federation.

2. The provisions of this Article equally apply to republics, territories, regions, federal cities, an autonomous region, autonomous circuits.

 

Article 73

Outside of the jurisdiction of the Russian Federation and of the powers of the Russian Federation on issues within the joint jurisdiction of the Russian Federation and constituent entities of the Russian Federation, the constituent entities of the Russian Federation have the full volume of state power.

 

Article 74

1. No customs borders, duties, fees or any other barriers for the free movement of goods, services or financial assets may be established on the territory of the Russian Federation.

2. Restrictions on the movement of goods and services may be established in accordance with federal law, if that is necessary for the protection of safety, lives and health of the people, the protection of the environment and of cultural values.

 

Article 75

1. The monetary unit in the Russian Federation is the ruble. Monetary emission is performed exclusively by the Central Bank of the Russian Federation. No other currency may be introduced or emitted in the Russian Federation.

2. To protect and ensure the stability of the ruble is the main function of the Central Bank of the Russian Federation; it exercises this function independently from other public authorities.

3. The system of taxes levied to the federal budget and the general principles of taxation in the Russian Federation are established by federal law.

4. State loans are issued in the manner stipulated in federal law and placed on a voluntary basis.

 

Article 76

1. Federal constitutional laws and federal laws are adopted on issues within the jurisdiction of the Russian Federation, having direct effect throughout the territory of the Russian Federation.

2. Federal laws and laws, other normative legal acts of constituent entities of the Russian Federation, adopted in accordance with them, are adopted on issues within the joint jurisdiction of the Russian Federation and of the constituent entities of the Russian Federation.

3. Federal laws may not contradict federal constitutional laws.

4. Outside of jurisdiction of the Russian Federation and of the joint jurisdiction of the Russian Federation and of the constituent entities of the Russian Federation, republics, territories, regions, federal cities, an autonomous region, autonomous circuits exercise their own legal regulation, including the adoption of laws and other normative legal acts.

5. Laws and other normative legal acts of constituent entities of the Russian Federation may not contradict the federal laws adopted in accordance with Parts 1 and 2 of this Article. If there is a contradiction between a federal law and another act issued in the Russian Federation, the federal law applies.

6. If there is a contradiction between a federal law and a normative legal act of a constituent entity of the Russian Federation, issued in accordance with Part 4 of this Article, the normative legal act of the constituent entity of the Russian Federation applies.

 

Article 77

1. The system of public authorities of republics, territories, regions, federal cities, an autonomous region, autonomous circuits is independently established by the constituent entities of the Russian Federation, in accordance with the foundations of the constitutional system of the Russian Federation and the general principles of organisation of representative and executive public authorities, established in federal law.

2. Within the jurisdiction of the Russian Federation and the powers of the Russian Federation on issues within the joint jurisdiction of the Russian Federation and the constituent entities of the Russian Federation, federal executive bodies and executive bodies of constituent entities of the Russian Federation form a single system of executive power in the Russian Federation.

 

Article 78

1. In order to exercise their powers, federal executive bodies may create their own territorial bodies and appoint corresponding officials.

2. By agreement with the executive bodies of constituent entities of the Russian Federation, federal executive bodies may partially delegate to them the exercise of their powers, unless this contradicts the Constitution of the Russian Federation and federal laws.

3. By agreement with federal executive bodies, the executive bodies of constituent entities of the Russian Federation may partially delegate to them the exercise of their powers.

4. The President of the Russian Federation and the Government of the Russian Federation ensure, in accordance with the Constitution of the Russian Federation, the exercise of federal state power throughout the territory of the Russian Federation.

 

Article 79

The Russian Federation may participate in inter-state associations and delegate some of its powers to them in accordance with international treaties, unless this entails restriction of human and civil rights and freedoms or contradicts the foundations of the constitutional system of the Russian Federation.

 

 

Chapter 4. President of the Russian Federation

 

Article 80

1. The President of the Russian Federation is the head of state.

2. The President is the guarantor of the Constitution of the Russian Federation, of human and civil rights and freedoms. In the manner stipulated in the Constitution of the Russian Federation, the President takes measures to protect the sovereignty of the Russian Federation, its independence and state integrity, ensures the coordinated functioning and interaction of public authorities.

3. The President of the Russian Federation determines the basic directions of domestic and foreign policy of the state in accordance with the Constitution of the Russian Federation and federal laws.

4. As the head of state, the President of the Russian Federation represents the Russian Federation inside the country and in international relations.

 

Article 81

1. The President of the Russian Federation is elected for a six-year term by citizens of the Russian Federation on the basis of general, equal and direct vote by secret ballot.

2. A citizen of the Russian Federation not younger than 35 years, who has resided in the Russian Federation for at least 10 years, may be elected President of the Russian Federation.

3. One and the same person may not hold the office of the President of the Russian Federation for more than two terms in a row.

4. The manner of election of the President of the Russian Federation is stipulated in federal law.

 

Article 82

1. At the inauguration, the President of the Russian Federation takes the following oath to the people:

"I vow, in performance of my powers as the President of the Russian Federation, to respect and protect human and civil rights and freedoms, to observe and protect the Constitution of the Russian Federation, to protect the sovereignty and independence, security and integrity of the state and to faithfully serve the people".

2. The oath is taken in a solemn atmosphere and in the presence of members of the Federation Council, of deputies of the State Duma and judges of the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation.

 

Article 83

The President of the Russian Federation:

a) appoints the Chairperson of the Government of the Russian Federation with consent of the State Duma;

b) has the right to preside over meetings of the Government of the Russian Federation;

c) makes the decision on resignation of the Government of the Russian Federation;

d) presents the candidate for appointment to the office of the Chairperson of the Central Bank of the Russian Federation to the State Duma; presents the issue of dismissal of the Chairperson of the Central Bank of the Russian Federation to the State Duma;

e) based on the proposals of the Chairperson of the Government of the Russian Federation, appoints and dismisses Deputy Chairpersons of the Government of the Russian Federation and federal ministers;

f) presents to the Federation Council the candidates for appointment to the offices of judges of the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation, of the Supreme Court of the Russian Federation; appoints the judges of other federal courts;

f.1) presents to the Federation Council the candidates for appointment to the office of the Prosecutor General of the Russian Federation, to the offices of Deputy Prosecutors General of the Russian Federation; appoints and dismisses the prosecutors of constituent entities of the Russian Federation, as well as other prosecutors, except for the prosecutors of cities, districts and prosecutors of equal rank;

f.2) appoints and dismisses the representatives of the Russian Federation in the Federation Council;

g) forms and heads the Security Council of the Russian Federation, the status of which is determined by federal law;

h) adopts the military doctrine of the Russian Federation;

i) forms the Presidential Executive Office;

j) appoints and dismisses the plenipotentiary representatives of the President of the Russian Federation;

k) appoints and dismisses the high command of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation;

l) appoints and recalls, after consultations with the corresponding committees or commissions of the houses of the Federal Assembly, the diplomatic representatives of the Russian Federation to foreign states and international organisations.

 

Article 84

The President of the Russian Federation:

a) appoints elections to the State Duma in accordance with the Constitution of the Russian Federation and federal law;

b) dissolves the State Duma, where so stipulated and in the manner stipulated in the Constitution of the Russian Federation;

c) appoints a referendum in the manner stipulated in a federal constitutional law;

d) introduces draft laws to the State Duma;

e) signs and publishes federal laws;

f) presents annual addresses to the Federal Assembly regarding the situation in the country, the general directions of internal and foreign policy of the state.

 

Article 85

1. The President of the Russian Federation may use conciliation procedures to settle differences between public authorities of the Russian Federation and public authorities of constituent entities of the Russian Federation, and also between public authorities of constituent entities of the Russian Federation. If no decision is agreed upon, the President may transfer the dispute for the consideration of the corresponding court.

2. The President of the Russian Federation has the right to suspend the effect of acts of executive bodies of constituent entities of the Russian Federation, if such acts contradict the Constitution of the Russian Federation and federal laws, international obligations of the Russian Federation or violate human and civil rights and freedoms, until the issue is resolved by the corresponding court.

 

Article 86

The President of the Russian Federation:

a) directs the foreign policy of the Russian Federation;

b) conducts negotiations and signs international treaties of the Russian Federation;

c) signs instruments of ratification;

d) accepts credentials and instruments of recall of diplomatic representatives accredited with him.

 

Article 87

1. The President of the Russian Federation is the Supreme Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation.

2. In the event of aggression against the Russian Federation or an immediate threat thereof, the President of the Russian Federation introduces martial law on the territory of the Russian Federation or in its certain areas and immediately informs the Federation Council and the State Duma of this.

3. The regime of martial law is determined in a federal constitutional law.

 

Article 88

Under the circumstances and in the manner stipulated in a federal constitutional law, the President of the Russian Federation imposes a state of emergency on the territory of the Russian Federation or in its certain areas and immediately informs the Federation Council and the State Duma of this.

 

Article 89

The President of the Russian Federation:

a) resolves issues of citizenship of the Russian Federation and of granting political asylum;

b) decorates with state awards of the Russian Federation, confers honorary titles of the Russian Federation, top military ranks and top special ranks;

c) grants pardon.

 

Article 90

1. The President of the Russian Federation issues decrees and orders.

2. The decrees and orders of the President of the Russian Federation are binding throughout the territory of the Russian Federation.

3. The decrees and orders of the President of the Russian Federation may not contradict the Constitution of the Russian Federation and federal laws.

 

Article 91

The President of the Russian Federation possesses immunity.

 

Article 92

1. The President of the Russian Federation assumes the powers from the moment of swearing in and stops to exercise them with the expiration of the term of office, from the moment the newly elected President of the Russian Federation is sworn in.

2. The powers of the President of the Russian Federation are terminated in the event of the President’s resignation or sustained inability to exercise the powers due to health conditions, or in the event of impeachment. Herewith, the new elections of the President of the Russian Federation are held no later than three months since the termination of powers.

3. In any event when the President of the Russian Federation is unable to perform his or her duties, such duties are temporarily performed by the Chairperson of the Government of the Russian Federation. The Acting President of the Russian Federation has no right to dissolve the State Duma, appoint a referendum or make proposals on amendment or revision of provisions of the Constitution of the Russian Federation.

 

Article 93

1. The President of the Russian Federation may be impeached by the Federation Council only on the basis of charges of high treason or another grave crime, brought against him or her by the State Duma and confirmed by a conclusion of the Supreme Court of the Russian Federation that there are elements of a crime in the President's actions and by a conclusion of the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation that the stipulated manner for bringing the charges has been observed.

2. The decision of the State Duma to bring the charges and the decision of the Federation Council on impeachment of the President must be supported by two thirds of the total number of votes in each of the houses, at the initiative of at least one third of deputies of the State Duma, on condition that there is a conclusion of a special commission formed by the State Duma.

3. The decision to impeachment the President of the Russian Federation must be adopted by the Federation Council within three months after charges are brought by the State Duma. If the Federation Council fails to adopt the decision within this period, the charges against the President are regarded as dismissed.

 

 

Chapter 5. Federal Assembly

 

Article 94

The Federal Assembly - the Parliament of the Russian Federation - is the representative and legislative body of the Russian Federation.

 

Article 95

1. The Federal Assembly consists of two houses - the Federation Council and the State Duma.

2. The Federation Council consists of: two representatives from every constituent entity of the Russian Federation – one from the legislative (representative) and one from the executive public authority; representatives of the Russian Federation appointed by the President of the Russian Federation, whose number does not exceed ten percent of the number of members of the Federation Council, who are representatives of legislative (representative) and executive public authorities of constituent entities of the Russian Federation.

3. A member of the Federation Council, who is a representative of a legislative (representative) or executive public authority of a constituent entity of the Russian Federation, is vested with powers for the term of powers of the corresponding public authority of a constituent entity of the Russian Federation.

4. During the first term of office, the President of the Russian Federation cannot dismiss a member of the Federation Council, who is a representative of the Russian Federation appointed before the President’s inauguration, unless otherwise stipulated in federal law.

5. The State Duma consists of 450 deputies.

 

Article 96

1. The State Duma is elected for a five-year term.

2. The manner of formation of the Federation Council and the manner of election of deputies of the State Duma are established in federal law.

 

Article 97

1. Any citizen of the Russian Federation who has reached the age of 21 and has the right to participate in elections may be elected deputy of the State Duma.

2. One and the same person may not concurrently be a member of the Federation Council and a deputy of the State Duma. A deputy of the State Duma may not be a deputy of any other representative public authority or local self-government body.

3. Deputies of the State Duma work on a full-time professional basis. Deputies of the State Duma may not be employed in the state service or engage in any other paid activities except for teaching, scientific or other creative activities.

 

Article 98

1. Members of the Federation Council and deputies of the State Duma possess immunity throughout their term of office. They may not be detained, arrested, searched, unless detained in the act of perpetration of a crime and may not be subject to personal search, except when so stipulated in law to ensure the safety of other people.

2. The issue of stripping of immunity is resolved upon presentation of the Prosecutor General of the Russian Federation by the corresponding house of the Federal Assembly.

 

Article 99

1. The Federal Assembly is a permanent body.

2. The State Duma holds its first session on the 30th day after its election. The President of the Russian Federation may convene a session of the State Duma before this term.

3. The first session of the State Duma is opened by the oldest deputy.

4. The powers of the previous State Duma cease from the moment the new State Duma begins its work.

 

Article 100

1. The Federation Council and the State Duma sit separately.

2. The sessions of the Federation Council and the State Duma are open. Each house may hold closed sessions, where so stipulated in the rules of the house.

3. The houses may hold joint sessions to hear the addresses of the President of the Russian Federation, addresses of the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation and speeches of foreign state leaders.

 

Article 101

1. The Federation Council elects from among its members the Chairperson of the Federation Council and the Chairperson’s deputies. The State Duma elects from among its members the Chairperson of the State Duma and the Chairperson’s deputies.

2. The Chairperson of the Federation Council and his or her deputies, the Chairperson of the State Duma and his or her deputies preside over sessions and supervise the internal regulations of the house.

3. The Federation Council and the State Duma form committees and commissions, hold parliamentary hearings on issues within their jurisdiction.

4. Each house adopts its own rules and resolves issues of internal regulation of its activities.

5. In order to exercise control over the administration of the federal budget, the Federation Council and the State Duma form the Accounts Chamber, the composition and manner of activities of which are established in federal law.

 

Article 102

1. The jurisdiction of the Federation Council includes:

a) approval of border changes between the constituent entities of the Russian Federation;

b) approval of the decree of the President of the Russian Federation on introduction of martial law;

c) approval of the decree of the President of the Russian Federation on introduction of a state of emergency;

d) decisions on the possibility of use of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation outside the territory of the Russian Federation;

e) appointment of elections of the President of the Russian Federation;

f) impeachment of the President of the Russian Federation;

g) appointment of judges of the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation, of the Supreme Court of the Russian Federation;

h) appointment and dismissal of the Prosecutor-General of the Russian Federation and of Deputy Prosecutors General of the Russian Federation;

i) appointment and dismissal of the deputy Chairperson of the Accounts Chamber and of a half of its auditors.

2. The Federation Council passes resolutions on issues within its jurisdiction in accordance with the Constitution of the Russian Federation.

3. The resolutions of the Federation Council are adopted by the majority of all members of the Federation Council, unless otherwise stipulated in the Constitution of the Russian Federation.

 

Article 103

1. The jurisdiction of the State Duma includes:

a) granting consent to the President of the Russian Federation for the appointment of the Chairperson of the Government of the Russian Federation;

b) expression of confidence or non-confidence in the Government of the Russian Federation;

c) hearing of annual reports of the Government of the Russian Federation regarding the results of its activities, in particular on issues raised by the State Duma;

d) appointment and dismissal of the Chairperson of the Central Bank of the Russian Federation;

d) appointment and dismissal of the Chairperson of the Accounts Chamber and of a half of its auditors;

e) appointment and dismissal of the Commissioner for Human Rights, acting in accordance with a federal constitutional law;

f) granting of amnesty;

g) bringing of charges against the President of the Russian Federation for the impeachment.

2. The State Duma adopts resolutions on issues of its jurisdiction in accordance with the Constitution of the Russian Federation.

3. The resolutions of the State Duma are adopted by the majority of votes of all the deputies of the State Duma, unless otherwise stipulated in the Constitution of the Russian Federation.

 

Article 104

1. The President of the Russian Federation, the Federation Council, members of the Federation Council, deputies of the State Duma, the Government of the Russian Federation and the legislative (representative) bodies of constituent entities of the Russian Federation have the right of legislative initiative. The Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation and the Supreme Court of the Russian Federation also have the right of legislative initiative, within the framework of their jurisdiction.

2. Draft laws are introduced to the State Duma.

3. Draft laws introducing or abolishing taxes, introducing exemptions from payment thereof, draft laws on the issue of state loans, on alteration of financial obligations of the state, other draft laws stipulating expenses covered from the federal budget may be introduced only when accompanied by a conclusion of the Government of the Russian Federation.

 

Article 105

1. Federal laws are adopted by the State Duma.

2. Federal laws are adopted by the majority of votes of all the deputies of the State Duma, unless otherwise stipulated in the Constitution of the Russian Federation.

3. Laws adopted by the State Duma are transferred for the consideration of the Federation Council within five days.

4. A federal law is considered as adopted by the Federation Council, if more than a half of its members vote for it, or if within fourteen days it is not considered by the Federation Council. If the Federation Council rejects the federal law, the houses may set up a conciliatory commission to settle the differences, after which the federal law is repeatedly considered by the State Duma.

5. If the State Duma disagrees with the decision of the Federation Council, the federal law is considered as adopted, if in the repeated voting at least two thirds of the total number of deputies of the State Duma vote for it.

 

Article 106

Federal laws adopted by the State Duma are subject to consideration by the Federation Council on an obligatory basis, if such laws address the issues of:

a) the federal budget;

b) federal taxes and fees;

c) financial, currency, credit and customs regulations, monetary emission;

d) ratification and denunciation of international treaties of the Russian Federation;

e) the status and protection of the state border of the Russian Federation;

f) war and peace.

 

Article 107

1. An adopted federal law is forwarded to the President of the Russian Federation for signing and publication within five days.

2. The President of the Russian Federation, within fourteen days, signs a federal law and publishes it.

3. If the President rejects a federal law within fourteen days since it was forwarded to her or him, the State Duma and the Federation Council repeatedly consider the law in the manner established in the Constitution of the Russian Federation. If, during the repeated consideration, the federal law is adopted in its earlier draft by a majority of no less than two thirds of the total number of members of the Federation Council and deputies of the State Duma, it is subject to signing by the President of the Russian Federation within seven days and to publication.

 

Article 108

1. Federal constitutional laws are adopted on issues specified in the Constitution of the Russian Federation.

2. A federal constitutional law is considered adopted, if it is approved by a majority of at least three quarters of the total number of members of the Federation Council and at least two thirds of the total number of deputies of the State Duma. The adopted federal constitutional law is signed by the President of the Russian Federation within fourteen days and published.

 

Article 109

1. The State Duma may be dissolved by the President of the Russian Federation, where so stipulated in Articles 111 and 117 of the Constitution of the Russian Federation.

2. In the event of dissolution of the State Duma, the President of the Russian Federation appoints the date of elections so that the newly elected State Duma convenes no later than four months since the time of dissolution.

3. The State Duma may not be dissolved on grounds stipulated in Article 117 of the Constitution of the Russian Federation within one year since its election.

4. The State Duma may not be dissolved from the moment it brings charges against the President of the Russian Federation and until the corresponding decision is made by the Federation Council.

5. The State Duma may not be dissolved during the period of state of emergency or martial law throughout the territory of the Russian Federation, as well as within six months before the expiry of the term of office of the President of the Russian Federation.

 

 

Chapter 6. Government of the Russian Federation

 

Article 110

1. Executive power in the Russian Federation is exercised by the Government of the Russian Federation.

2. The Government of the Russian Federation consists of the Chairperson of the Government of the Russian Federation, Deputy Chairpersons of the Government and federal ministers.

 

Article 111

1. The Chairperson of the Government of the Russian Federation is appointed by the President of the Russian Federation with consent of the State Duma.

2. The candidate to the position of the Chairperson of the Government of the Russian Federation is proposed no later than two weeks since the inauguration of the newly elected President of the Russian Federation or since the resignation of the Government of the Russian Federation, or within one week since the rejection of the candidate by the State Duma.

3. The State Duma considers the candidate to the position of the Chairperson of the Government of the Russian Federation proposed by the President of the Russian Federation within one week since the nomination.

4. If the State Duma thrice rejects candidates for the position of the Chairperson of the Government of the Russian Federation, proposed by the President of the Russian Federation, the President of the Russian Federation appoints the Chairperson of the Government of the Russian Federation, dissolves the State Duma and appoints a new election.

 

Article 112

1. The Chairperson of the Government of the Russian Federation, no later than one week since appointment, submits proposals on the structure of federal executive bodies to the President of the Russian Federation.

2. The Chairperson of the Government of the Russian Federation proposes candidates for the positions of Deputy Chairpersons of the Government of the Russian Federation and federal ministers to the President of the Russian Federation.

 

Article 113

The Chairperson of the Government of the Russian Federation determines the main directions of work of the Government of the Russian Federation in accordance with the Constitution of the Russian Federation, federal laws and decrees of the President of the Russian Federation and organises its work.

 

Article 114

1. The Government of the Russian Federation:

a) elaborates and presents the federal budget to the State Duma and ensures its realisation; submits a report on the realisation of the federal budget to the State Duma; presents annual reports regarding the results of its activities to the State Duma, in particular on issues raised by the State Duma;

b) ensures the implementation in the Russian Federation of a uniform financial, credit and monetary policy;

c) ensures the implementation in the Russian Federation of a uniform state policy in the spheres of culture, science, education, healthcare, social welfare and ecology;

d) manages federal property;

e) takes measures to ensure the country's defence, state security and the realisation of the foreign policy of the Russian Federation;

f) takes measures to ensure lawfulness, rights and freedoms of citizens, protection of property and public peace, the fight against crime;

g) exercises other powers vested in it by the Constitution of the Russian Federation, federal laws and decrees of the President of the Russian Federation.

2. The work of the Government of the Russian Federation is regulated by a federal constitutional law.

 

Article 115

1. On the basis of and pursuant to the Constitution of the Russian Federation, federal laws and normative decrees of the President of the Russian Federation, the Government of the Russian Federation issues decrees and orders and ensures their implementation.

2. The decrees and orders of the Government of the Russian Federation are binding throughout the Russian Federation.

3. The decrees and orders of the Government of the Russian Federation may be repealed by the President of the Russian Federation if they contradict the Constitution of the Russian Federation, federal laws and decrees of the President of the Russian Federation.

 

Article 116

The Government of the Russian Federation lays down its powers before the newly elected President of the Russian Federation.

 

Article 117

1. The Government of the Russian Federation may hand in its resignation, which may be accepted or rejected by the President of the Russian Federation.

2. The President of the Russian Federation may make a decision on the resignation of the Government of the Russian Federation.

3. The State Duma may express non-confidence in the Government of the Russian Federation. The non-confidence resolution is approved by a simple majority of deputies of the State Duma. After the State Duma expresses non-confidence in the Government of the Russian Federation, the President of the Russian Federation may declare the resignation of the Government of the Russian Federation or disagree with the decision of the State Duma. If within three months the State Duma repeatedly expresses non-confidence in the Government of the Russian Federation, the President of the Russian Federation declares the resignation of the Government or dissolves the State Duma.

4. The Chairperson of the Government of the Russian Federation may put the question of confidence in the Government of the Russian Federation before the State Duma. In case of a non-confidence vote by the State Duma, the President within seven days makes a decision on resignation of the Government of the Russian Federation or on dissolution of the State Duma and appointment of new elections.

5. If the Government of the Russian Federation resigns or lays down its powers, it continues to act, upon instructions of the President of the Russian Federation, until a new Government of the Russian Federation is formed.

 

 

Chapter 7. Judiciary and Bodies of Prosecution

 

Article 118

1. Justice in the Russian Federation is administered only by the courts.

2. Judicial power is exercised through constitutional, civil, administrative and criminal judicial proceedings.

3. The judicial system of the Russian Federation is established by the Constitution of the Russian Federation and a federal constitutional law. The creation of extraordinary courts is not allowed.

 

Article 119

A citizen of the Russian Federation aged 25 years and older, who holds a law degree and has working experience in the field of law of at least five years, may become a judge. Federal law may stipulate additional requirements for judges of courts of the Russian Federation.

 

Article 120

1. Judges are independent and obey only the Constitution of the Russian Federation and federal law.

2. If a court finds that an act of a state body or another body is not compliant with the law, it adopts a decision in accordance with the law.

 

Article 121

1. Judges are irremovable.

2. The powers of a judge may be terminated or suspended only in the manner and on the grounds stipulated in federal law.

 

Article 122

1. Judges possess immunity.

2. A judge may be held criminally liable only in the manner stipulated in federal law.

 

Article 123

1. Proceedings in all courts are open. A case may be heard in camera only where so stipulated in federal law.

2. Consideration of criminal cases in absentia is not allowed in courts, except where otherwise stipulated in federal law.

3. Judicial proceedings are conducted based on the principles of their adversarial nature and equality of the parties.

4. Where so stipulated in federal law, judicial proceedings are carried out with participation of jurors.

 

Article 124

The courts are financed only out of the federal budget; the financing must ensure the possibility of full and independent administration of justice in accordance with federal law.

 

Article 125

1. The Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation consists of 19 judges.

2. The Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation on request of the President of the Russian Federation, of the State Duma, one fifth of members of the Federation Council or deputies of the State Duma, the Government of the Russian Federation, of the Supreme Court of the Russian Federation, bodies of legislative and executive power of constituent entities of the Russian Federation considers cases regarding the compliance with the Constitution of the Russian Federation of:

a) federal laws, normative acts of the President of the Russian Federation, the Federation Council, State Duma and the Government of the Russian Federation;

b) constitutions of republics, charters, as well as of laws and other normative acts of constituent entities of the Russian Federation adopted on issues within the jurisdiction of public authorities of the Russian Federation and the joint jurisdiction of public authorities of the Russian Federation and public authorities of constituent entities of the Russian Federation;

c) agreements between public authorities of the Russian Federation and public authorities of constituent entities of the Russian Federation, agreements between public authorities of constituent entities of the Russian Federation;

d) international treaties of the Russian Federation that have not entered into force.

3. The Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation resolves disputes on jurisdiction:

a) between federal public authorities;

b) between public authorities of the Russian Federation and public authorities of constituent entities of the Russian Federation;

c) between the highest public authorities of constituent entities of the Russian Federation.

4. The Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation, based on complaints regarding the violation of constitutional rights and freedoms of citizens and upon requests from courts, checks the constitutionality of a law applied or subject to application in a specific case, in the manner stipulated in federal law.

5. The Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation, upon requests of the President of the Russian Federation, the Federation Council, the State Duma, the Government of the Russian Federation, legislative bodies of constituent entities of the Russian Federation, interprets the Constitution of the Russian Federation.

6. Acts or certain provisions thereof, deemed unconstitutional, loose force; international treaties of the Russian Federation are not subject to enactment and application if they do not comply with the Constitution of the Russian Federation.

7. By request of the Federation Council, the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation makes a conclusion on whether the stipulated manner for bringing the charges of high treason or another grave crime against the President of the Russian Federation has been observed.

 

Article 126

The Supreme Court of the Russian Federation is the supreme judicial body in civil, criminal and administrative cases, in cases regarding the resolution of economic disputes and other cases falling under the jurisdiction of courts, formed in accordance with a federal constitutional law.  It exercises judicial supervision over the activities of those courts in procedural forms, stipulated in federal law, and gives clarifications on issues of judicial practice.

 

Article 127

Abrogated by Amendment to the Constitution of the Russian Federation (Law of the Russian Federation on Amendment of the Constitution of the Russian Federation “On the Supreme Court of the Russian Federation and the Bodies of Prosecution of the Russian Federation”).

 

Article 128

1. Judges of the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation, of the Supreme Court of the Russian Federation are appointed by the Federation Council upon presentation by the President of the Russian Federation.

2. Judges of other federal courts are appointed by the President of the Russian Federation in the manner stipulated in federal law.

3. The powers, manner of formation and activities of the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation, the Supreme Court of the Russian Federation and of other federal courts are stipulated in federal constitutional laws.

 

Article 129

1. The powers, organisation and manner of activities of bodies of prosecution of the Russian Federation are stipulated in a federal law.

2. The Prosecutor General of the Russian Federation and Deputy Prosecutors General of the Russian Federation are appointed and dismissed by the Federation Council upon presentation by the President of the Russian Federation.

3. Prosecutors of constituent entities of the Russian Federation are appointed by the President of the Russian Federation upon presentation by the Prosecutor General of the Russian Federation, made with consent of the constituent entities of the Russian Federation. Prosecutors of constituent entities of the Russian Federation are dismissed by the President of the Russian Federation.

 4. Other prosecutors, except for prosecutors of cities, districts and prosecutors of equal rank, are appointed and dismissed by the President of the Russian Federation.

5. Prosecutors of cities, districts and prosecutors of equal rank are appointed and dismissed by the Prosecutor General of the Russian Federation.

 

 

Chapter 8. Local Self-Government

 

Article 130

1. Local self-government in the Russian Federation ensures independent solution of local issues by the population, as well as the ownership, use and disposal of municipal property.

2. Local self-government is exercised by the citizens through referendums, elections and other forms of direct expression of will, through elective and other local self-government bodies.

 

Article 131

1. Local self-government is exercised in cities, rural settlements and in other areas, with regard to the historical and other local traditions. The structure of local self-government bodies is determined by the population independently.

2. The borders of territories, within which local self-government is exercised, may be changed, with regard to the opinion of the population of those territories.

 

Article 132

1. Local self-government bodies independently manage municipal property, form, approve and administer the local budget, establish local taxes and fees, preserve the public peace and solve other local issues.

2. By virtue of law, local self-government bodies may be vested with certain state powers, accompanied by the transfer of material and financial resources necessary to exercise such powers. The exercise of transferred powers is under the control of the state.

 

Article 133

Local self-government in the Russian Federation is guaranteed by the right to judicial protection, the right to compensation for any additional expenses resulting from decisions of public authorities, the prohibition to restrict the local self-government rights stipulated in the Constitution of the Russian Federation and federal laws.

 

 

Chapter 9. Constitutional Amendments and Review of the Constitution

 

Article 134

Proposals on amendment and review of provisions of the Constitution of the Russian Federation may be made by the President of the Russian Federation, the Federation Council, the State Duma, the Government of the Russian Federation, legislative (representative) bodies of constituent entities of the Russian Federation, as well as by a group of at least one fifth of the total number of members of the Federation Council or deputies of the State Duma.

 

Article 135

1. The provisions of Chapters 1, 2 and 9 of the Constitution of the Russian Federation may not be reviewed by the Federal Assembly.

2. If the proposal to review the provisions of Chapters 1, 2 and 9 of the Constitution of the Russian Federation is supported by three fifths of the total number of members of the Federation Council and deputies of the State Duma, the Constitutional Assembly is convened in accordance with a federal constitutional law.

3. The Constitutional Assembly may either confirm the inviolability of the Constitution of the Russian Federation or elaborate a new draft of the Constitution of the Russian Federation, which is adopted by two thirds of the total number of members of the Constitutional Assembly or submitted to popular vote. The Constitution of the Russian Federation is considered adopted in such a vote, if more than a half of its participants vote for it, on condition that more than a half of the electorate takes part in the vote.

 

Article 136

Amendments to Chapters 3-8 of the Constitution of the Russian Federation are adopted in the manner stipulated for the adoption of a federal constitutional law and enter into force after they are approved by the legislative bodies of at least two thirds of constituent entities of the Russian Federation.

 

Article 137

1. Amendments to Article 65 of the Constitution of the Russian Federation, which determines the composition of the Russian Federation, are made on the basis of a federal constitutional law regarding the admission to the Russian Federation and formation of a new constituent entity within the Russian Federation, as well as regarding the change of constitutional legal status of a constituent entity of the Russian Federation.

2. If a republic, territory, region, federal city, autonomous region, autonomous circuit changes its name, the new name of the constituent entity of the Russian Federation is to be included into Article 65 of the Constitution of the Russian Federation.

 

 

SECTION II. Concluding and Transitional Provisions

 

1. The Constitution of the Russian Federation enters into force from the day of its official publication following the results of the popular vote.

The day of the popular vote, 12 December 1993, is considered the day of adoption of the Constitution of the Russian Federation.

Simultaneously, the Constitution (Fundamental Law) of the Russian Federation - Russia, adopted on 12 April 1978, with the consecutive amendments and supplements, ceases its effect.

In the event of nonconformity between the Constitution of the Russian Federation and the Federal Treaty - the Treaty on Delimitation of Scopes of Jurisdiction and Powers between the Federal Public Authorities of the Russian Federation and the Public Authorities of Sovereign Republics within the Composition of the Russian Federation, of the Treaty on Delimitation of Scopes of Jurisdiction and Powers between the Federal Public Authorities of the Russian Federation and the Public Authorities of Territories, Regions, the Cities of Moscow and Saint-Petersburg of the Russian Federation, of the Treaty on Delimitation of Scopes of Jurisdiction and Powers between the Federal Public Authorities of the Russian Federation and the Public Authorities of an Autonomous Region, of Autonomous Circuits within the Composition of the Russian Federation, as well as other treaties between federal public authorities of the Russian Federation and public authorities of constituent entities of the Russian Federation, treaties between public authorities of constituent entities of the Russian Federation, the provisions of the Constitution of the Russian Federation apply.

2. Laws and other legal acts that were in effect on the territory of the Russian Federation until the entry of this Constitution into force apply insofar as they do not contradict the Constitution of the Russian Federation.

3. From the day of entry of this Constitution into force, the President of the Russian Federation, elected in accordance with the Constitution (Fundamental Law) of the Russian Federation - Russia, exercises the powers stipulated in the Constitution until the term of office, for which he was elected, expires.

4. From the day of entry of this Constitution into force, the Council of Ministers - the Government of the Russian Federation assumes the rights, duties and responsibilities of the Government of the Russian Federation stipulated in the Constitution of the Russian Federation and shall henceforth be referred to as the Government of the Russian Federation.

5. Courts in the Russian Federation administer justice in accordance with their powers, stipulated in this Constitution.

After the Constitution enters into force, judges of all courts of the Russian Federation remain in office until the expiration of term of office for which they were elected. Vacancies are filled in the manner stipulated in this Constitution.

6. Until the adoption of a federal law stipulating the manner for trial with participation of jurors, the prior manner of judicial consideration of corresponding cases is preserved.

Until the criminal procedure legislation of the Russian Federation is modified to comply with the provisions of this Constitution, the prior manner of arrest, keeping in custody and detention of persons suspected of committing crimes is preserved.

7. The Federation Council of the first convocation and the State Duma of the first convocation are elected for two-year terms.

8. The Federation Council shall hold its first session on the 30th day after election. The first session of the Federation Council shall be opened by the President of the Russian Federation.

9. A deputy of the first convocation of the State Duma may simultaneously be a member of the Government of the Russian Federation. The provisions of this Constitution regarding the immunity of deputies as regards responsibility for their actions (failure to act) pertaining to the exercise of their official duties do not apply to the deputies of the State Duma, who are members of the Government of the Russian Federation.

Members of the first convocation of the Federation Council exercise their powers on a part-time basis.

English




В этой рубрике:

CONSTITUTION OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION (AS AMENDED ON 21 JULY 2014)

CODE OF ADMINISTRATIVE JUDICIAL PROCEDURE OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION |

"ON PROVISION OF ACCESS TO INFORMATION RELATED TO ACTIVITIES OF COURTS IN THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION" (FL NO. 3262 OF 22.12.2008) |

"ON COMPENSATION FOR INFRINGEMENT OF THE RIGHT TO THE JUDICIAL PROCEEDINGS CONDUCT WITHIN REASONABLE TIME OR RIGHT TO THE JUDICIAL ACT ENFORCEMENT WITHIN REASONABLE TIME" (FL NO. 68 OF APRIL 30, 2010) |

ON COOPERATION OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION WITH THE EUROPEAN COURT OF HUMAN RIGHTS IN THE FIELD OF JURISDICTION |

 
 
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